Fruit – Vegetable – Tropical Fruits
The culture of the plum can be traced back to antiquity with their roots in Turkey. The European plum of today is regarded as a species-hybrid of the blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and the Cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera). Since both species are found wildly between the Caucasus and Caspian Sea, our plum probably developed in the region. The Romans brought it to Italy 150 years before the time of Christ and from there they spread throughout Europe. However, due to the the numerous crossbreedings of the plum, not much of this “archetype of the plum” has remained.
Plums are characterised by being roundish to oval with soft and very juicy flesh. The dusty white coating, a lining of “mother nature” that protects the fruit is a results of waxlike eliminations, which may be wiped off. They are strongly bereft and contain a blunt core.
Plums are very sweet.
They are cultivated on all continents worldwide, but most fruits come from Asia (45 %), Europe (36 %), as well as North and Central America (14 %).
The domestic harvest takes place from July to October and the import season begins from the end of June until the end of October. The main suppliers are Italy, Hungary, France, Romania, Spain, Poland and Turkey. The main months for import are August and September.
Regarding individual vitamins, the plum does not establish any records, but the aggregate supply makes all the difference! Besides vitamins A, C and Biotin (H), plums contain all B vitimans. They are the best stimulators of the carbohydratic metabolism, for strong nerves, mental freshness, motive force, power output and resistance to mental pressure. In addition they stimulate the kidney and intestinal activity.
Other stone fruits are hardly as versatile as the plum. The of plums of today are often species coming from crossbreedings and there are there are more than 2000 varieties, which differ — only slightly in certain aspects — in size, colour, form, how they separate from the core, juice content, flavour and maturation time. It is difficult to class the different varieties— the following five groups have been established:
The garden plum (also referred to as gage, egg plum or quetsch) matures somewhat earlier than the damson. It has a roundish form and is usually provided with a noticeable ventral seam. In addition, fruits do not often easily separate from the core. They are mosty blue to violet, but there are also red and yellow varieties. The flesh predominantly is yellow, very juicy, sweet and noble in flavour.
The prune is a close relative of the plum and primarily originates from Asia. It is rectangular with pointed ends, usually without a furrow or seam. The skin is scarab blue, but the flesh yellow and easily separates from the core. They are characterised by their firm, flavoured flesh as well as their dusty white coating. In this country there are approximately 25 well-known varieties with partially quite unusual names, such as e.g. Stanley, President Drouard and Buehler’s Early Prune.
The greengage (also referred to as greengage plum), which was brought along from the Orient to France by the botanist Pierre Belon, owes its name to Claude de France, the wife of king Francis I of France. The sensitive greengage plum is spherical, their green yellow, reddish gleaming paring encloses the greenish-white, highly aromatic and sweet flesh. Their core usually is difficultly separating.
The yellow egg plum is a particularly sensitive, small sized, spherical fruit of yellow colour with red cheeks or dots. Due to its firm yellow and quite sweet flesh, it is very well suited to cooking.
The Japanese plum is to be available particularly in the winter half year, imported from South Africa or Chile.